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                     It gives me immense pleasure to welcome all to explore our weekly e-health magazine “Health Mate”. We intend to publish health awareness articles, review articles, case reports and research papers. Our objective is to reach general population, medical practitioners and paramedics. Our main aim is to promote scientific papers of good quality and we extend our boundaries to medical and allied sciences. Finally I thank my editorial team , technical team, authors and well wishers who are promoting this e-magazine. I conclude and promise that the standard policies will be maintained.


Dr RusheeKanta Mohanta (MD.DM.)





Date : 3/11/2019
Author : Dr. Udaya Bhanu Rout (MBBS, MD Medicine)
Publisher : Heartmate
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Volume No : 3 Issue No : 2

1. What is Cholesterol?

    Cholesterol is a soft, fat-like, waxy substance found in the bloodstream and in all your body's cells. It's normal to have cholesterol. Cholesterol is an important part of a healthy body because it's used for producing cell membranes and some hormones, and serves other needed bodily functions. 




2. What's Bad and What's Good?

   Cholesterol can’t dissolve in the blood. It has to be transported to and from the cells by carriers called lipoproteins. Low-density lipoprotein, or LDL, is known as “bad” cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein, or HDL, is known as “good” cholesterol. These two types of lipids, along with triglycerides and Lp(a) cholesterol, make up your total cholesterol count, which can be determined through a blood test.

  • a. LDL (Bad) Cholesterol : When too much LDL (bad) cholesterol circulates in the blood, it can slowly build up in the inner walls of the arteries that feed the heart and brain. Together with other substances, it can form plaque, a thick, hard deposit that can narrow the arteries and make them less flexible. This condition is known as   atherosclerosis.If a clot forms and blocks a narrowed artery, heart attack or stroke can result.

  • b. HDL (good) Cholesterol : About one-fourth to one-third of blood cholesterol is carried by high-density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL cholesterol is known as “good” cholesterol, because high levels of HDL seem to protect against heart attack. Low levels of HDL (less than 40 mg/dL) also increase the risk of heart disease. 

  • c. Triglycerides : Triglyceride is a form of fat made in the body. Elevated triglycerides can be due to overweight/obesity,physical inactivity,cigarette smoking, excess alcohol consumption, and a diet very high in carbohydrates. People with high triglycerides often have a high total cholesterol level, including a high LDL level and a low HDL level. 

  •  d. Lp(a) Cholesterol : Lp(a) is a genetic variation of LDL cholesterol. A high level of Lp(a) is a significant risk factor for the premature development of fatty deposits in arteries.


3. What Can Cholesterol Do?

    High cholesterol is one of the major controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease, heart attack and stroke. As your blood cholesterol rises, so does your risk of coronary heart disease. If you have other risk factors (such as high blood pressure or diabetes) as well as high cholesterol, this risk increases even more. The more risk factors you have, the greater your chance of developing coronary heart disease. Also, the greater the level of each risk factor, the more that factor affects your overall risk.


4. What do Your Cholesterol Levels Mean?

    Your test report will show your cholesterol levels in milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL)

Your Total Blood (or Serum) Cholesterol Level 

  • a. Less than 200 mg/dL - (Desirable) : If your LDL, HDL and triglyceride levels are also at desirable levels and you have no  other risk  factors for heart disease, total blood cholesterol below 200 mg/dL puts you at relatively low risk of coronary heart disease. Have your cholesterol levels checked every five years or as your doctor recommends.
  • b. 200–239 mg/dL - (Borderline-High Risk) : If your total cholesterol falls between 200 and 239 mg/dL, your doctor will evaluate your levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol, HDL (good) cholesterol and triglycerides. It's possible to have borderline-high total cholesterol numbers with normal levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol balanced by high HDL (good) cholesterol.
  •  c. 240 mg/dL and overv - (High Risk) : People who have a total cholesterol level of 240 mg/dL or more typically have twice the risk of coronary heart disease as people whose cholesterol level is desirable (200 mg/dL). 


5. What is Atherosclerosis?

   Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis. .It's the tprocess of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium and fibrin (a clotting material in the blood) building up in the inner lining of an artery. The buildup that results is called plaque.

Arteriosclerosis is a general term for the thickening and hardening of arteries. Some hardening of arteries normally occurs when people grow older.

Plaque may partially or totally block the blood's flow through an artery. Two things that can happen where plaque occurs are:

  1. 1. There may be bleeding (hemorrhage) into the plaque. 
  2. 2. A blood clot (thrombus) may form on the plaque's surface
If either of these occurs and blocks the whole artery, a heart attack or stroke may result.


6. What should I eat?

  • 1. Focus on eating foods low in saturated and trans fats such as: A variety of fruits and vegetables. 
  • 2. A variety of whole grain foods like whole grain bread, cereal, pasta and brown rice.
  • 3. Fat-free, 1 percent and low-fat milk products.
  • 4. Poultry without skin and lean meats. When you choose to eat red meat and pork, select options labeled “loin” and “round.” These cuts usually have the least fat. 
  • 5. Fatty fish such as salmon, trout, albacore tuna and sardines.
  • 6. Unsalted nuts, seeds, and legumes (dried beans or peas).
  • 7. Nontropical vegetable oils like canola, corn, olive, or safflower oils. 


7.What should I limit?

  1. 1. Foods with a lot of sodium (salt)
  2. 2. Sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages
  3. 3. Red meats and fatty meats that aren’t trimmed
  4. 4. Meats that have been processed with a lot of sodium
  5. 5. Full-fat dairy products such as whole milk, cream, ice cream, butter, and cheese
  6. 6. Baked goods made with saturated and trans fats like donuts, cakes cookies
  7. 7. Foods that list the words “hydrogenated oils” in the ingredients panel
  8. 8. Saturated oils like coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil
  9. 9. Fried foods 


8.What are some cooking tips to reduce cholesterol?

  1. 1. Add a variety of fruits and vegetables to your meals.
  2. 2. Use a rack to drain off fat when you broil, roast  or bake poultry and meats.
  3. 3. Look for leaner cuts if you choose to eat meat.
  4. 4. Don’t baste with drippings; use wine, fruit juice or marinade.
  5. 5. Broil or grill instead of pan-frying.
  6. 6. Cut off all visible fat from meat before cooking,  and take all the skin off poultry pieces.
  7. 7. Use a vegetable oil spray to brown or sauté foods. 


Dr. Udaya Bhanu Rout

MBBS, MD. Medicine

Heartmate Institute




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